Miller Family History

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Physical Anthropology Brief

        Such a thing as a pure race does not exist and peoples of the world today are complex mixtures. Let a character be defined as any part of, or, as any condition associated with an individual or any number of its parts. Such characters are usually made up of factors or attributes, determined in the nucleii of cells as genes.
        Mendeleian factors are limited to genes and give rise to the Mendel principlas of heredity, thus, the more general the character the more complex it is. Chromosomes are thread like bodies in the nucleus of a cell each carrying its certain grouping of genes, which appear to be duplicates of each other and produce identical effects. Medelian factors follow in the Mendel pattern of inheritance as either present or absent — e.g. the blood factors A, B, and O; or they may appear as dominant and recesive, the ratio being 3:11. A peculiar example of this is the absense of human h;ands and feet. Mohr gives a case where this character acts as a single factor controled by a single gene—the mother normal, and father deformed and the three children all deformed as the father.
        Genes are arranged in serial fashion in the structure called chromosomes. Each species has its required number of chromosomes, that carry through a line of descent quite permanently. The human body has 48,

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half of which are derived from the mother and half from the father.
        One of this set of chromosomes is a sex chromosome and for simplicity, let us say, it acts as a Mendelian present and absent factor. These sex chromosomes are represented as x and y, in which x denotes presence and y, their absence. Hence, if an embryo is xx it is a girl if wy a boy; thus the ratio of male and female is about 1:1. Linkage appears when a chromosome is carried forward in a line of descent because it takes with it a certain grouping of genes. It is obvious, that complex characters become modified as the chromosomes become regrouped from time to time in a line of descent; but genes apear linked for that particular chromosome throughout that descent. The gene for color blindness (red-green) is on the, x, or sex chromosome and is a recessive.
     girl          girl            boy          boy
  normal     color B        color B    normal
xx - xx(c)   x(c)x(c)       x(c)y         xy
        A girl carries one each of the x chromosomes of her father and mother but a boy only one x chromosome fo his mother. Mutations are abrupt change or modification in heredity and seldom occur in humans. They may be due to addition or loss of genes or a sort of entanglement of chromosomes which alters certain linkage groups. Not all characters are Mendelian but the factors that sustain

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them are Mendelian.

                                    The A, B, O Blood Groups
        Each person must possess some combination of two of these genes of which six different combinations are possible—
OO, AA, AO, BB, BO and AB. The O acts as a recessive to either A or B and A and B are either present or absent. "It has been found from experience that a serious, or indeed often a fatal reaction may result from such a transfusion especially if much of the incompatible blood is injected. It is for this reason that blood transfusions can be preformed safely only when the blood groups of the individuals have been previously determined. The possibility of transfusion which are thus allowable are shown in the accompanying scheme." It must be pointed out that the O group is not always the 'universal donor.'
All races of people support the three blood groups though not all in the same proportion.
     "It was taken for granted that the blood groups of peoples of the past could not be determined since all that ever remains of them are skeletons or bloodless mumies, but in actual fact even these dry relics may sometimes be made to reveal their blood groups. The chemical substances A and B are not restricted to the red cells of the indicidual, but exists throughout his whole body, in practically all his cells and tissues, fluids and they are rather unusually stable antigens. They resist drying, heating and exposure to a number of drastic chemical reagents which would quickly inactivate protin antigens."
     For a long time there has been a debate as to the relative importance of heredity and environment in  human lives. Self perfection begins where heredity leaves off, hence, our duty is to study to better our environment and understanding and that of our fellow beings.
     "The nasal index (breadth of nose x 100 divided by the height of nose has long been used as one of the means of distinguishing races. It is probably a highly adaptive character, and its mode of inheritance is still far from
                Head Form
     About 100 yrs. ago the Swedish anatomist Andre Retzius discoved that the relation between breadth and length of the brain case varies not so much between individuals as it did between different human groups or races Hence, the "Cephalic index" or measurements of head forms, offers the advantageous index that seems to remain almost constant after infancy. There three classes of skulls are dolichoocephalic, brachycephalic and mesocephalic.

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Skulls are dolichocephalic if the index breadth divided by length expressed as percentage is below 75, brachycephalic if over 80 and between these limits are mesocephalic. There characters are not Mendelian and may be composed of many factors.

                             North             Central            Mongloid             Negroid
Character              Europe           Europe             Yellow                Black
Skull length           long               short               short                  long
   "     breadth         narrow          broad               broad                  narrow
   "     height           high               high                 middle                low

                        Some Mendelian Characteristics in Man
     Skin, hair nails and teeth
1) Black Skin (two genes)             1) White skin
       incomplete dominance
2) Pibald (skin and hair                 2) One color
       spotted with white)
3) White forelock                      
    3) One color
4) Dark hair (several genes)           4) Light hair
5) Non red hair                          
   5) Red Hair
6) Dark skin (several genes)          6) White skin
7) Freckles                      
             7) No freckles
8) Pigmented skin, hair and eyes    8) Albino
9) Curly hair (either  hybrid            9) Straight hair
       or wavy)
10) Woolly hair (negroid type)     10) Straight hair or non wooly hair
11) Woolly hair (Caucasoid type) 11) Non woolly hair
12) Abundant body hair                12) Little body hair
       (several genes)
13) Normal                        
          13) Hairless (Hypotrichosis)
14) Hairless (congenial                  14) Normal

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15) Early baldness (dominant         15) Normal
        in male)    
16) Scaly skin (Ichthyosis)             16) Normal
17) Thick skin (Tylosis)                  17) Normal
18) Absent teeth (various types)     18) Normal
19) Defective dentin                       19) Normal
         (opalescent teeth)
20) Free ear lobes                        20) Adherent ear lobes

21) Brown                         
           21) Blue or Grey
22) Hazel                         
            22) Blue or Grey
23) Pigmented iris                        23) Albino
24) "Mongolian fold"                   24) No fold
25) Drooping eyelids (Ptosis)      25) Normal
26) Near sightedness                   26) Normal
        (Myopia, large cornea)
27) Normal                        
          27) Near sightedness
28) Farsightedness                
       28) Normal
        (Hyperopia, short eyeball)
29) Astigmatism (cornea              29) Normal
        not sherical)
30) Cataract (opaque lens)           30) Normal
31) Glaucomea (excessive            31) Normal
        presssure in eyeball)

           Skelton and Muscles

32) Short Stature                       
  32) Tall
        (several genes)
33) Dwarfism (achondroposis)      33) Normal
34) Midget (ateliosis,                   34) Normal
        two genes?)
35) Short broad skull                    35) Normal
        (several genes)
36) Extra digits (polydactly)         36) Normal
37) Split hand ("lobster claw")     37) Normal
38) Hare lip and cleft palate         38) Normal
        (also a recessive)
39) Rupture, susceptibility to       39) Normal
40) Absent long palmar muscle     40) Normal

                          Circulatory and Respiratory System

41) Hemolytic jaundice                  41) Normal
42) Nosebleed and blood cysts       42) Normal
43) Varicose veins                         43) Normal
        and hemorrhoids
44) Hereditary dropsy (Edema)       44) Normal
45) High blood pressure                  45) Normal
46) Allergy                       
              46) Normal
47) Resistance to tuberculosis         47) Susceptibility to T.B.

  Excretory System

48) Polycystic kidney                     48) Normal
49) Diabetes incipidus                    49) Normal
  Endocrine Glands

50) Diabetes mellitus                     50) Normal

  Digestive System

51) Normal                        
              51) Phyloric stenosis
52) Ulcers      (mode of inheritance uncertain)
53) Enlarged colon                         
  53) Normal
        (Hirschsprung's disease)
                              Reproductive System

54) Misplaced penis opening            54) Normal
                             Cancer & other Malignant Tumors
55) Normal                        
              55) Xeroderma pigmentasum
56) von Ricklinghausen's dissease  56) Normal
57) Stomach cancer ?                      57) Normal
58) Normal                        
              58) Retinal glioma

                             Nervous System

59) Taster (of compound                  59) non tasters (smell not bitter)
60) Normal                        
              60) Congenital deafness
61) Auditory nerfe atrophy                61) Normal
        (wasting away)
62) Otosclerosis deafness                62) Normal
63) Hunington's chorea                    63) Normal
64) Normal (or mild type dominant)   64) Feeble mindedness
65) Normal                        
              65) Amaurotic idiocy (loss of mind)
66) Manaic-depressive phycosis       66) Normal

                             Special Talent     Dominance uncertain

       Musical ability
       Drawing painting sculpture
       Mathematical ability
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